Slow decline

Slow decline

Already for the successors of Suleiman, Selima II (1566 – 74) i Murada III (1574 – 95), the first signs of a crisis of the empire appeared. The state began to weaken due to the outdated fief system, which could not provide permanent ones for the growing administration and the ever-growing army, as well as the growing needs of the court, what about growing, income. While the conquests of new lands ensured an influx of wealth, the military failures as a result of technical backwardness in relation to Europe inhibited the inflow of loot and cash. The military began to rebel, and the Janissaries did not like the previously unknown orders, e.g.. saving. So they began to rebel. Not only them – the army and the administration too. Selim II had only one success – won in 1570 r. so far ruled by the Latin people of Cyprus. This, however, mobilized Venice to take offensive action against Turkey. The League was tied up, in which the composition, next to the Venetians, Spain entered, Malta, ecclesiastical state and several Italian principalities. A huge fleet was formed i 1571 r. there was a great naval battle at Lepanto (near Greece). The Turks were beaten head-on, which was a real shock for them, because united Christians dealt the first defeat of the Ottoman Empire in history. Year 1571 it is the beginning of the end of the empire.

Selim's successors managed to continue their expansionist policy, Morocco and part of the Caucasus were captured (with Georgia) to the Caspian Sea, but successive rulers, starting with Murad IV (1623 – 40), they dealt less with external affairs. Before that, however, Mehmed 111 (1595 – 1603) took over the so-called. Danubian principalities, that is, Moldavia and Wallachia, defeating the Moldavian prince Michael the Brave. The short reign of Osman II (1618 – 22) characterized by a conflict with Poland, it was then that the famous Battle of Cecora and the siege of Khotyn took place. Osman decided to go against Poland because of its interference in Moldavian affairs, and also as a result of the plundering expeditions of the Cossacks, who went as far as Trabzon. W 1620 r. Turkish troops defeated the Polish army, but the siege of Khotyn did not bring the expected results. The so-called. pact chocimskie (1621), that is, peace, who gave respite to over 50 years.

Osman ended tragically, killed by rebellious Janissaries, who chose his mentally ill uncle as his successor – Mustafa I., but because it showed no signs of improvement, he was replaced by brother of Osman II, Muradem IV. Until he reached the age of majority, the affairs of the state were dealt with by his mother Kosem, which has become a kind of tradition in the Sultan's palace. Since then, Turkish politics has often been influenced by the women of the harem, especially the mothers of the sultans. Murad IV waged wars with Persia, but he was consumed with internal affairs, for he wanted to put an end to the ever more prevalent anarchy. He only partially succeeded, and during the reign of successive sultans, things returned to their former state, getting worse by the day.

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