Hans von Kluge
Hans Gunther von Kluge was born 30 November 1882 year in Poznań. He was the son of an officer of the Prussian Guard. After graduating from military school, at nineteen, he joined the army in the rank of second lieutenant. Tam, 22 brand 1901 year was assigned to 46. field artillery regiment, stationed at Wolffenbuettel. After several years of service, he began studies at the Military Academy, after which he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. He joined the Great Staff, where he remained until the outbreak of the war.
During the First World War, he served as a staff officer. First in the General Staff, then at the headquarters of the 21st Corps fighting in the Carpathians, and at the end, from 1917 years he served in the headquarters 236 Infantry Division, fighting in France. He was severely wounded during the Battle of Verdun and spent the rest of the war convalescing.
Hans von Kluge returned to military service at the end of the year 1919, joining the Reichswehr. He was assigned to the staff 3. Infantry Division. Since then, he has performed almost alternately various staff and line functions. So here it is 1926 year he ceased his staff activities and began to act as a commander 3. artillery regiment stationed in Żagań. Shortly thereafter, he was withdrawn from the line service and assumed the role of chief of staff 1. Cavalry Division, based in Frankfurt, n. Measles. Soon after, w 1928 year, back to the linear function. In turn, already in a year 1928 became the commander 2. artillery regiment in Schwerin, and four years later he was appointed commander of the artillery of the 3rd Corps in Berlin. also, from 1923 years he worked in the Reichswehr Ministry,
After Hitler came to power in January 1933 During the year, Hans von Kluge's military career accelerated significantly. From then on, he started to be promoted almost every now and then. The rank of general awaited him in the same year, when he was promoted to major general. A year later he became a lieutenant general, and with his promotion he was given command of 6. Infantry Division stationed in Munster. After four years, von Klugh was promoted to the rank of general of artillery. In December 1938 year he was appointed commander of the sixth Heeresgruppe, which took part in the occupation of the Sudetes.
General Hans von Kluge was significantly opposed to both the internal, as well as Hitler's external policy, which was the most likely reason for his retirement immediately after the occupation of Czechoslovakia. However, soon the German leader restored General von Klugh to active service and appointed him the commander of the newly created 4. Army.
At the head of his group, he fought during the aggression against the Second Polish Republic. During the war, he showed great command and strategic skills; in four days he had fulfilled the basic goals set for his army (breaking through the so-called. “Pomeranian corridor”). Another proof of Klugi's amazing abilities was fact, on September eight 4. The army stood in front of Płock. For his achievements during the September campaign, he was appointed Generaloberst and decorated with the Knight's Cross.
General von Kluge took part in the campaign against France, also in the role of commander 4. Army. This time his group was tasked with surrounding the English troops located in Flanders and covering the main attack on Paris from the north and west.. Hans von Kluge did an excellent job, once again flashing his unprecedented leadership and strategic skills. As a reward for your achievements, 19 July 1940 Hitler promoted him to the rank of field marshal.
At the head of his famous group, he took part in the operation “Barbarossa”. He soon received command of the Guderian and Hoth armored groups. In October 1941 in the year he also took part in the battles under the Wiaźma River. At the end of that year, his troops stood at the gates of the Soviet capital. For his achievements in the first phase of the war, Field Marshal von Kluge was decorated with the Iron Cross and received a high financial award., which he invested in a small estate in Silesia.
After the defeat in Moscow and taking von Bock's command of the Army Group “Center”, the function of the commander of this grouping fell to the current commander 4. Army, feldmarszałkowi from Klugemu. He fought at its head during the Battle of the Kursk, interrupted by the Allied landing in North Africa. It is worth recalling a fact here, that at that time von Kluge was in close contact with the opposition. He began to fall into a little conflict with Adolf Hitler.
27 On October, a car accident took place under mysterious circumstances. Auto, which von Kluge was driving on the Minsk-Smolensk road skidded and fell on the roof. Field marshal, heavily injured, was transported to the country, where he was treated for the next six months. At the clinic, he received Oak Leaves with swords sent to him by Hitler for the Iron Cross.
He returns to the front in early July 1944. This time he is assigned to fight in Western Europe, where he is nominated to the position of the Supreme Commander of the Western Front (later, after severely wounding Rommel, he also received command of 2. Army Group).
He was constantly opposed to the Fuhrer's policy. 16 VII signed with Erwin Rommel the so-called. “ultimatum” for Hitler, in which the two famous commanders made their demands for further action, and which would save Germany from defeat. also, von Kluge was involved in the coup of the day 20 July 1944 year.
The situation in France soon became critical – von Klugi's troops were in danger of being encircled. Despite strenuous appeals by the German field marshal for permission to withdraw beyond the Seine line, Hitler was unmoved. So, in mid-August, von Kluge, He and his hundred thousand soldiers are surrounded in a cauldron near the city of Falaise.
In this situation, the field marshal was forced to start peace negotiations. Bad luck wanted, so that it would not be available for half a day. Hitler quickly guessed about the next conspiracy being prepared. He gave the final order planned for a long time “deletion” from Klugego. 15 August dismissed him from the post of commander of the Western Front; a day later, the field marshal was captured by Jurgen Stroop, just before leaving for the final negotiations with the English.
He was escorted to Dombasle sur Meurthe in Lorraine, 16 kilometers from Nancy. There he had several confidential conversations with Jurgen Stroop, to make him feel guilty and make him commit suicide. However, Stroop was unable to convince von Kluge. In a conversation with Kazimierz Moczarski, the German dignitary recalls: “I couldn't cope with him. I left my pistol loaded in the room and left. I thought, that Selbstmord will commit. After fifteen minutes I was back. Eventually I took my gun, and on the table I put a glass of water and poison. All to no avail (…) And yet it ended up on the floor, on a beautiful carpet, with a hole in the head… (…) Himmler (…) he had me send a report to his headquarters, that Kluge boarded a plane in France, which he was supposed to fly to Adolf Hitler, and committed suicide before the start” (Kazimierz Moczarski, “Conversations with the executioner”, Znak publishing house, Cracow 2004).
It happened on August 19 1944 year.