27 April 1945 r. an independent state was proclaimed, by establishing a provisional federal government under the leadership of Karl Renner. Austria retained its borders with 1937 r., but it was divided into four zones of occupation, under the control of the victorious powers – USA, The Soviet Union, Great Britain and France. Vienna itself, located in the Soviet occupation zone, it was also divided into four sectors of occupation. The city center was under the control of all powers in turn, which changed every month. The situation of Austria and Vienna was very similar to that of Germany and Berlin, however, in the latter, the Soviet zone finally separated, while Austria remained united, because the communist party here (unlike the situation in Germany) lost the support of voters.
Cool relations between the great powers resulted, that the occupation dragged on 10 years. It was a hard time for the Austrians. Rebuilding national monuments was costly and slow, and trade was dominated by the black market. 15 May 1955 r. Austrian State Treaty has been ratified, in which Austria declared its perpetual neutrality. After the Allied forces withdrew in December 1955 r. the republic became a member of the United Nations. As the capital of a neutral country, located in the immediate vicinity of the Warsaw Pact countries, during the Cold War years, Vienna became an attractive city for spies and diplomats. W 1961 r. Kennedy and Khrushchev met here, a year 1979 Carter and Brezhnev.
Austrian international opinion has suffered, when in 1986 r. Kurt Waldheim became the president of Austria, former UN Secretary General (although disclosed, that he served as a lieutenant in a detachment of the German Wehrmacht, who was accused of war crimes). There was, however, no concrete evidence against Waldheim, but it was not adopted by the governments of many countries. In 1985 r. Der Schwierigste Job der Welt Waldheim made no mention of his three-year military service. Only in 1993 r. Chancellor Franz Vranitzky admitted in his rather belated commentary on Austria's participation in World War II, that his countrymen “willingly served Nazism”.
W 1992 r. Waldheim was replaced by the Austrian People's Party, who came from the same Austrian People's Party (Original packaging) Thomas Klestil, who easily won the next elections in April 1998 r.
Years of the European Union
In the post-war years, Austria worked hard to bridge the economic gap. W 1972 r. concluded with the European Economic Community (the current European Union) agreement on a free market economy, and in July 1989 r. has applied for full membership. W 1994 r. conditions were agreed and the Austrians, as a result of the conducted 12 June 1994 r. referendum, approved their country's entry into the European Union („For” she replied 66,4% voters). Austria formally became a member of the EU 1 January 1995 r.
In February 2000 r. Austria has again become the target of international criticism, when it's the far-right Freedom Party (FPÓ) formed a new one together with ÓVP, coalition government, headed by Chancellor Schlussel. For the first time in years 70. Social Democracy of Austria (SPE) she did not come to power at all, even as a coalition partner. New administration, although elected in a democratic vote, she was doomed to failure even before any action was taken. The European Union immediately imposed sanctions on Austria in the form of cooling down all high-level diplomatic contacts.
Few Austrians were satisfied with the agreement between ÓVP and FPÓ, the more that it excluded the most popular from the area of interest, according to polls, the party SPO (enjoying support 33% voters, to 26,9% obtained by ÓVP and FPÓ). Public demonstrations against the FPÓ party took place in several Austrian cities. For most Austrians, both of these opposite FPOs, as well as its followers, the biggest concern, however, was the immediate, almost "pre-emptive."” the response of the European Union, testifying, In their opinion, with a minor role, which the Austrian state performs in the arena of European relations. The sanctions turned out not only to be unnecessary, but even counterproductive, so they were canceled already in September 2000 r.
Dust has not yet settled on Austria's political failures, when another great tragedy shook the country, which all the newspapers in the world wrote about in capital letters. In November 2000 r. w Kaprun, a serious fire broke out in the Gletscherbahn cable car going up the mountain, in which it lost its life 155 people. It was the most tragic mountain catastrophe in the history of mankind.