Hetyci – founders of the first empire in Anatolia
The Hittite state was one of the great powers of the then Asia Minor. The Hittites were indeed an ethnic and linguistic mixture, but they were characterized by political and cultural unity. The greatest development of their empire took place in approx. 1700 – 1190 p.n.e.. when the capital was the city of Hattusas (ok. 150 km east of Ankary). One of the first powerful rulers was Hattusilis I., who started the program of great conquests. It was his army that stretched the kingdom's territory north and south, so having made both seas: Black and Mediterranean, state borders. During the reign of Hattusilis I and his successors Mursilis I, the Hittites began pressing southeast into Syria and Babylonia. First they captured Aleppo, later Babylon. Other people took advantage of the absence of troops in the Hittite state, which then came to great importance in this region – Hurts. They attacked Anatolia, but the Hittites managed to fight them off, but with enormous own losses. The Hurites occupied Syria and most of Cilicia, as well as the eastern fringes of the Anatolian Highlands.
After the death of Mursilis, there was a period of collapse of the state (dynastic disputes and court intrigues), which Teilpinus briefly prevented (ok. 1525 r. p.n.e.), but after his departure, the empire weakened again. A new era began for the Hittites with the reign of Suppiluliumas 1 (ok. 1380 – 1450 r. p.n.e.). He quickly recovered the kingdom from a disastrous situation, and his main opponent at that time were the Hurites, who, in the meantime, founded the Mitanni state in their territories. He has taken over their kingdom, having placed on the throne there a docile ruler, and then captured Syria – all the way to Damascus. Supcastulium has been added, Mursilis II, and took the western lands, that is the territories of the state of Arzawa reaching the shores of the Aegean Sea. Thus arose a power that competed with Babylon and Egypt.
A conflict of interest led to a power struggle between the Hittites and the Egyptians. The famous battle of Kadesh in 1285 r. p.n.e. It did not bring any resolution (although each of the warring sides later portrayed it as a major victory), but Ramesses II, then pharaoh, he had to abandon the idea of controlling Syria. To this day, the first known in history peace treaty with 1270 r. p.n.e., both transmitted in Hittite, and Egyptian, consolidating Hittite rule in Syria. The slow decline of the empire had followed from the time of Tuthaliyas IV (ok. 1250- 1220 r. p.n.e.), when is the so-called outpost. sea peoples, in the great majority of Greeks, started coming to Anatolia. Tuthalijas carried out a religious reform and it was he who probably left a wonderful testimony of Hittite art in the form of beautiful bas-reliefs near Hattusas, w Yazilikaya. The last historical text found in the Hittite archives was a mention of it, jak Suppilulium II (successor of Tuthaliyas IV) he defeated the enemy holding Cyprus. However, nothing could stop the collapse of the state – European tribes began to press against them, among which the Phrygians and the Lydians were in the lead.