The golden age for Turkey basically began during the reign of Mehmed II, but it was only under his successors that the Ottomans experienced the true peak of their empire's power, which translated not only into the number of magnificent buildings and the overall development of culture, but also the number of territories conquered and wars won. Mehmed II was succeeded by his son Beyazid II (1481 – 1512). During his reign, we note the first conflict with Poland over the fortresses on the Danube and the Dnieper and over the invasions of the Crimean Tatars subordinate to the Turks. The next Sultan was Selim I (1512 – 20), who became famous for the conquest of Persia and Egypt. He entered Iran in 1514 r., after beating the Shah Ismail, and to Egypt 3 years later, having first conquered Syria and Palestine. Selim was then considered the protector of Mecca and Medina, because with the conquest of Egypt, it became part of the Arabian Peninsula, which until then belonged to the ruling Mamluk dynasty. Turkey has become a real cosmopolitan empire, in which various ethnic elements were mixed together by one religion.
The reign of the most eminent Ottoman Sultan added even more splendor to Turkey – Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 66), which began to play a significant role in European politics. At the beginning of his reign, he captured Belgrade and part of Hungary with Buda (after the battle of Mohacz in 1526 r.), and at the same time he made his way as far as Habsburg Vienna, besieging him unsuccessfully for three weeks. Then, slowly, Europe began to really worry about the progress of the Turks in this part of the world, although the French were happy about the weakening of the Habsburgs and even made an alliance with Turkey. However, this was generally condemned – after all, it's only been since the crusades 100 years. At that time, Poland also maintained proper relations with Turkey. Then Suleiman conquered the island of Rhodes, defended by the knights of the Knights Hospitaller Order, Iraq and Azerbaijan and the northern coasts of Africa up to Morocco. As a result of the Rhodes campaign, Turkey's navy developed, which henceforth gained great importance. Chociaż nie mogła jeszcze skutecznie konkurować z potężną flotą wenecką czy genueńską, to jednak rozgromiła w 1538 r. flotę chrześcijańską płynącą w celu zablokowania Osmanom wstępu na Morze Śródziemne. Wybitnym admirałem floty osmańskiej był sturczony Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasa, który położył podwaliny pod rozwój tureckiej marynarki wojennej. Sulejman zmarł, jak przystało na wojowniczego władcę, w wojskowym obozie na Węgrzech. W Turcji nadano mu przydomek Prawodawca (Kanuni), because he has instructed the existing law to be codified into one large collection. He is known as the Magnificent in the European tradition.