Fall

Fall

Turkish-Russian war of the years 1877 – 78 it deepened the financial problems anyway, that in 1881 r. the government declared insolvency. At that time, the Public Debt Authority was established, who more or less successfully tried to save the deplorable state of the state. To make matters worse, Abdulhamid II introduced despotic rule and nothing prevented the increasing European domination in Turkey. The great powers began to compete for influence in the empire. As for capital, Prussia played a significant role here, which opposed Russia and its allies in European policy – France and England, so Germany was becoming a natural ally of the Ottomans. A strange relationship has developed in the Turkish state. On the one hand, unlimited despotism, and on the other hand, the equally unlimited influence of foreign capital, and thus Western culture. Great powers began to dictate the terms of concessions to build railroads, public roads, electricity, water and gas networks. As a result, however, the condition of the Turkish economy and its economy in general improved significantly at the beginning of the 20th century.

The heirloom after the Young Romanesque movement was taken over by the Young Turks, whose program crystallized at the end of the 19th century. They were opponents of the Abdulhamid regime and proclaimed liberal-democratic slogans. The broadly understood nationalism also found more and more supporters. Therefore, the Armenian massacres were not opposed, which took place in eastern Anatolia and in Istanbul, after which the ruthless sultan had only enemies in Europe. However, apart from this issue, have to admit, that new currents had finally changed existing relations. At that time, the committed Mustafa Kemal began to stand out among the youngsters, later Ataturk. The Young Turks led to the outbreak of a revolution in 1908 r "as a result of which the sultan was forced to restore the constitution. It was an important step towards the democratization of the state. Coincidence made, that even before the parliament was called, but before young people filled government posts, Bulgaria declared independence. Protests secretly fueled by Abdulhamid and conservative circles broke out in the capital, in response, the threatened reformers gathered some of the army that was still loyal to them and forcibly dethroned the hated Sultan. They replaced him with his younger brother, Mehmedem V, the penultimate Turkish sultan, who ruled to 1918 r.

In the second decade of the 20th century. the so-called. Balkan wars, being an expression of the efforts of the states located on this peninsula to achieve full independence, while losing as few territories as possible. The Young Turks were unable to cope with the Balkan conflicts, and besides, limited democracy, which they introduced, she began to go her own ways. The newly established opposition seized power for some time, and Turkey was struck by blows from almost all sides. The Greeks were the most active, as evidenced by their occupation of the islands off the coast of Anatolia. Albania declared independence, Macedonia has also seceded from Turkey, and the Italians took over African Libya. As a result of the Balkan wars, the state lost 90% their estates in Europe. World War I broke out soon after these events. Until its end, as a result of political turmoil, the country was again ruled by the young Turks.

The crowning achievement of the pro-German policy pursued in Turkey for a long time was the entry into the war on the side of the Central Powers. Although the Allied landing on the Gallipoli peninsula in 1915 r. turned out to be a tragic mistake, this, however, was due to the defeat of the war by Germany, the English army, French and Russian began in 1918 r. to ransom part of the country with Istanbul. Another Armenian pogrom with 1915 r. it tarnished even more the already tarnished one, because of their support for the Central Powers, Turkey's reputation, so that the Young Turks had to withdraw from government after the war, and their place was taken by pro-English politicians. The victorious powers planned the partition of Turkey. It was decided to grant Greece Western Anatolia, and Armenia and Kurdistan were to be established in the eastern territories. A general partition of the Ottoman Empire was planned, noon was already occupied by the British, Italians and French. The Black Sea coast has also been mastered. In July 1918 r. the throne of the deceased Mehmed V was taken over by his brother, Mehmed VI, which, despite efforts, did not differ much from its predecessor – he was also just a figurehead.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *