Calendars in the years of captivity

Calendars in the years of captivity

Huge, The already very diversified calendar production was not stopped by the partitioning powers. Calendars with tradition continued to appear. New ones also started to come out. Farm calendars have developed in particular, and in Galicia and the Russian partition in the first years of the 19th century. There were even political calendars. Of course, it was different now. Rather, they contained lists of authorities and offices, descriptions of towns and villages, lists of fairs and official tariffs, etc..

Especially fashionable - starting in the 1930s - were poetry calendars, based on the French "Calendar of Muses" (the first such appeared in France in 1765 r.). They bore such titles: „Melitele”, "Snitch", Biruta, "Forget-me-nots", "Unforgettable", "Primrose" etc.. The latter was published in 1838-1843 in Warsaw and was intended for ladies.

There were also many religious calendars, issued by various religious congregations and church institutions - devotional and conservative in content. After the enfranchisement of peasants - in the 1950s and 1960s - "calendars for the people", edited by various clerical-landed groups and centers. But there were also genuinely folk calendars. Such was undoubtedly the "Catholic Calendar for the Upper Silesian People" (starting from 1846 r. in Bytom and Królewska Huta) or "Calendar for the Polish people" (published by Gazeta Rolnicza in Warsaw). They were of great importance for the village, often being the only prints, with which the Polish peasant encountered. They played an enormously important role in the Prussian partition, especially in Silesia, where national life began to wake up.

The traditions of the old calendars - Zamość calendars also revived, Sandomierz, Kalisz and Królewiec. He continued to go out in Królewiec (from 1767) "Prussian-Polish Calendar", in Kalisz - "Polish calendar, Russian and economic ”, in Stanisławów - "Universal calendar, home and farm "etc.. There were also supra-regional calendars, m.in. "The Gdańsk calendar of West Prussians, W. Of the Duchy of Poznań and Silesia "and" Greater Poland Calendar for Silesia ".

From 1830 r. Calendars of Józef Czech began to appear in Krakow, from 1852 and - by Juliusz Wildt - "Universal Calendar". The last one, as announced by the publisher, "Being a reference book", he brought home "learning and fun.", to the hosts and hostesses of the council, government regulations and tariffs to citizens, traders list of fairs and announcements, and religious and geographic news, moral statements and knowledge in the field of skills, industry and art for everyone ". The editor of this calendar was, among others. Władysław Anczyc.

From 1846 r. Józef Unger's "Warsaw Popular Science Calendar" was very popular (later appearing under the name of "Illustrated Calendar"), while from 1863 - "Calendar of the Warsaw Charity Society" (its editor for some time was, among others. Joseph I.. Kraszewski).

There are also agricultural calendars, for craftsmen, merchants and hunters, for ladies and women, household and household, for the Polish and Catholic people, for all states, as well as for organists and Polish women. They were issued by both church institutions, like newspapers and associations. They served specific social and religious purposes, but also the dissemination of knowledge, raising education, national culture and consciousness. However, there were also calendars full of obscurant advice, almost alive taken from ages past. Even Wildt's Universal Calendar was not free from them, considered good after all, whether (anyway, only seemingly democratic) "Illustrated universal calendar for all states" (also, incidentally, Krakow).

There were also others, e.g.. "Happy groomsman" (published in Pleszew), "Home Treasure" (in Mikołów) or "Consolation of old age" (in Wroclaw). Be like that, like the Warsaw "Illustrated humorous calendar", "Mucha's humorous calendar for decent people", Lviv "The Humorous Calendar of Śmigus" or the "Kopciuszek Śląski" published in Opole. Calendars of Lucyna Ćwiercziakiewiczowa were also very popular (so, the one from famous recipes) and "A Christmas Carol for Housewives" (issued from 1875 in Warsaw). Finally - numerous calendars published by popular newspapers and weeklies, e.g.. by "Catholic", "Nowiny Raciborskie", "Goniec Wielkopolski", "Hut", etc.. However, records were broken by Warsaw calendars (published in the years 1880—1909), how… „Facet”, "Girl", "Daughters of Eve", "Pst-Pst", "Kukuryku", Reduta, "Tram" or "Vivat".

There were also wall calendars. Starting of 1849 r. he published them, among others. Krakow's "Time", and then the Warsaw company M. Faience. They enjoyed great popularity in all partitions. Some of them were even distinguished by their aesthetics. Anyway, no wonder, because they were illustrated by such masters, like Franciszek Kostrzewski, Józef Chełmoński, Juliusz Kossak or Michał Andriolli. Large-format wall calendars were also published, following the English pattern, consisting of 12 cards decorated with lithographs. Calendars that are currently fashionable - advertisements of various companies have an old pedigree.

At the end of the 19th century. Workers' calendars were also available for sale, published by editorial offices of magazines related to the workers' movement, like for example. the Lviv "Robotnik" (from 1892 r.) or the Katowice "Gazeta Robotnicza" (from 1902). However, this type of calendars became popular only in the interwar years of our century.

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