In the beginning

In the beginning

We will consider the history of the country as the history of the lands, on which modern Turkey stretches. The Anatolian Peninsula has been inhabited for a long time, which was partly due to its convenient location between Europe and West Asia. Peoples migrated through Anatolia, mostly in the directions on the east axis – West, by settling in its area permanently or only temporarily. Sometimes they had an impact on the first organized tribes or communities found here, and they often assimilated themselves. The oldest traces of human existence have been found near such cities, jacuzzi Antalya, Isparta i Ankara, and they point to the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic), i.e. for a period of approx. 80-15 thousand. years ago.

The first settlements of the Younger Stone Age (Neolithic) arose in and around Burdur (Hacilar) i Konyi (Catal Huyuk) 8000 years BC. The last mentioned place has been inhabited for approx. 7500 do 5000 r. p.n.e., and the settlement was already defensive. Its inhabitants not only collected food, but they also produced it, later they raised cattle and made copper items – during the transition between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age (chalkolit). The walls of the houses are covered with paintings (many religious depictions) and rich finds in the form of, for example, pottery and numerous statuettes, which can be admired today in the Ankara museum, testify to the high level of Neolithic culture in Asia Minor. However, to a greater importance in Chalcolithic (ok. 5500 – 3000 p.n.e.) there was a settlement at today's Hacilar. Its inhabitants dealt with the processing of copper on a massive scale. About 3000 years BC. The Bronze Age began in Anatolia. Archaeological site at Kultepe (ancient Kanesh) near Kayseri, they unveiled the local power center, where bronze was processed at a high level. Tablets with Assyrian cuneiform script were also found here, for many of the cities were colonies of Assyrian merchants trading in bronze and copper. At the time, in the vicinity of the middle course of the Kizilirmak river, the first Protohctite settlements began to emerge, and a little later, an increasing influx of Indo-European peoples brought the Hittites to Anatolia.

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