After the lost Battle of Manzikert, and the seizure of Jerusalem a little earlier by the Seljuks, the idea of ​​a saint arose in the Western world, liberation war, expeditions against infidels. The immediate goal was to recapture the Holy Land from their hands, and especially Jerusalem, that, among others. enable pilgrims to travel freely. The Byzantines, in turn, wanted to oust the Seljuqs from Asia Minor, and by the way, restore in Palestine and Syria – and anywhere else – your reign. The idea of ​​the crusades was certainly noble, but in the long run it did the Byzantine Empire more harm than good, maybe that's why, that everyone participating in the expedition wanted to gain some tangible benefits from it, whether it's in the form of loot, or the seizure of some part of the earth. Hardly any of the so-called. the Latin people really looked after the interests of the Byzantines, whose inhabitants were schismatics to them (the split between the Eastern and the Western Church took place in the mid-11th century.).

The first expedition took place in 1097 r. and was quite successful. Rejected by the Seljuks Nice, as a result, they were forced to move further south, Western Anatolia was captured, and the Turkish tribes were cut off from their people in Syria and Iraq, winning Tars, Adana, Edessa (today Urfa) and Antioch (Antakya today). After that, many more expeditions were organized, more or less successful, a Latin state was created with a capital in Jerusalem, which was subdivided into the principalities and counties of the European pattern. Richard the Lionheart and Frederick Barbarossa took part in the third expedition. The latter drowned in the river while bathing near today's Silifke (obany Adany). The fourth crusade with 1204 r., when Constantinople was attacked and sacked, for the first time in its history. The Latin state was then established, and the legitimate rulers of Constantinople escaped and formed their own monarchy with their capital at Trapezunta (today Trabzon). Another branch of the imperial family went to Nicaea and established a country traditionally referring to the fallen empire. The Latin Americans did not stay long in Constantinople, and the ruler of Nicaea, Michael VIII, conquered 1261 r. – in an alliance with the Venetians and the Genoese – the former capital of Byzantium, establishing the imperial Palaeologists dynasty.

Children's crusade

As you know, Christians have always believed very deeply in the power of innocence. This belief resulted in the most terrifying crusade – the so-called. children's. W 1212 r. An army of peasant children was sent to help the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Most of them did not survive the journey – She died on the way of starvation and disease, and the rest were sold into slavery.

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