Alexander the Great and his successors – Hellenistic times in Anatolia
The Macedonian king came to Anatolia in 334 r. p.n.e. and in a few years he conquered all of West Asia, reaching all the way to India. The states and cities in Asia Minor surrendered to him without much resistance, anyway, there were no reasons, to defend myself, for, apart from the usually small tribute, they did not bear any costs in connection with Alexander's rule in Anatolia. This outstanding commander dreamed of a huge empire, which would connect Greek and Eastern culture (specifically Persian), and the boundaries of the new state would extend to the entire world known then. After Alexander's unexpected death, St. 323 r. p.n.e. flared up among his chiefs (called diadocha-mi) wars for the division of the monarchy. From then on, the period known in history as Hellenism begins, characterized by a large influence of the culture and science of the East on the territory of the Alexandrian empire (and conversely, which is called the Hellenization of the East), and thus the emergence of a completely new community of true cosmopolitans.
The wars between the diadochi eventually produced two great states in the region; one (on the east) Selcucus ruled, and others (in the West) another leader of Alexander ruled – Lysimachus. In addition, several independent kingdoms were established in Asia Minor, among which Pergamon took the lead, stretching from the west coast to present-day Ankara, and Pont, occupying the northeastern part of the Anatolian Highlands. With time, Pergamon became an important cultural and political center. He experienced the period of greatest glory during the reign of Eumenes II (197- 159 r. p.n.e.). It was then that the Roman empire for the first time interfered with the relations in Asia Minor. Well, when the successors of Lysimachus and Seleucus fought for the reign of Anatolia, Rome sided with Pergamon (then addicted to the Seleucids), who thus emerged victorious from this dispute. The last king of Pergamon was Attalus III, we know an ally of the Roman state. W 133 r. p.n.e. he bequeathed the kingdom of Pergamon to Rome in his testament, and he thus acquired one of his first and most important footholds in Asia Minor.